In this chapter, a hybrid power system that consists of multiple proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems, batteries, and supercapacitors (SCs) is developed for a hybrid tramway. Three energy management strategies that included a fuzzy logic control (FLC), an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), and a state machine strategy based on droop control (SMS-DC) are utilized to coordinate multiple power sources, avoid the transients and rapid changes of power demand, and achieve high efficiency without degrading the mechanism performance for an energy management system of hybrid tramway. A hybrid system model of tramway is established with commercially available devices, and then the different energy management strategies are evaluated with a real driving cycle of tramway from Turkey. The results compared with these strategies demonstrate that the higher average efficiencies of the tramway, the lower tramway-equivalent hydrogen consumptions, and more efficient use of the batteries and SCs energy are achieved by the SMS-DC. Therefore, the appropriate energy management system for high-power hybrid tramway will improve the hydrogen consumptions of overall hybrid system and the efficiencies of each power source.
Part of the book: Urban Transport Systems