Ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) comprise 20–25% of all ovarian cancers arising from germ cells of ovary. Mature teratoma (dermoid) is the only benign and commonest germ cell tumor. Only 3–5% germ cell tumors are malignant, dysgerminomas being the most common. These tumors occur in adolescents and reproductive age group. Hence, its association with pregnancy is not uncommon. They can be reliably diagnosed with ultrasound imaging. Raised levels of tumor markers in pregnancy should be interpreted with caution. Cystectomy can be done for benign germ cell tumors. However, fertility sparing surgery with surgical staging with or without adjunctive therapy is recommended for malignant germ cell tumors (MOGTs). Surgery is safe in the second trimester of pregnancy. MOGTs are quite sensitive to chemo and radiotherapy. Three to four courses of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and platinum is recommended. Prognosis of these germ cell tumors is excellent.
Part of the book: Germ Cell