Polycrystalline BaTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.96SnxZr0.04-x)O3 ceramics (x = 0.02-0.04) were prepared by a combination of solid-state and mechanochemical process and characterized at room temperature by X-ray diffraction for phase composition. Their crystal structures were found to be of the cubic and tetragonal symmetries, respectively. The grain size and porosity which were determined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and densitometer, respectively showed decrease and increase of relative density respectively, with increase in doping concentration. The variations of dielectric constant and loss with frequency and temperature show a maximum dielectric constant of 1660 at room temperature for Ba(Ti0.96Sn0.03Zr0.01)O3. The remnant polarization (Pr) and coercive field (Ec) of BT were found to be 581.73 V/cm and 0.27 μC/cm2. Increase in Sn content led to an increase in Pr of 0.58, 3.07, 3.73 C/cm2, and Ec of 1766.8, 2855.7, 2661.1 V/cm, respectively and are expected to lead to a significant reduction in the thickness of the multilayer ceramic capacitors. Impedance spectroscopy of polycrystalline Ba (Ti0.96Sn0.02Zr0.02) O3 in a wide frequency and temperature range showed Nyquist plots with presence of grain and grain boundary at 400°C and a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) for Ba(Ti0.96Sn0.02Zr0.02)O3. The dielectric relaxation showed a non-Debye character.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Porous Ceramics