This study identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and traces of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel, and copper in crude oil-contaminated soil. It also focuses on the use of poultry manure and sorghum husk in the bioremediation of the contaminated soil. Crude oil-contaminated soil sample was divided into five parts (A: untreated, B: poultry manure, C and D: poultry manure and sorghum husk in ratios 1:1 and 3:1, respectively, and E: sorghum husk). The heavy metals concentrations and TPH content were assessed initially in the untreated soil sample and later on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, and 30th days after adding the stimulants. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), pH and conductivity meters were used for TPH, heavy metals, pH and electrical conductivity analyses, respectively. The results showed soil sample C to have highest TPH reduction, while the soil sample E exhibited 96.1% reduction in nickel, 97.5% reduction in zinc, 100% reduction in lead, and 99.3% reduction in copper. The pH of the soil ranged from 7.13 to 7.92 (within the range 6.5–8 suitable for microbial growth). The electrical conductivity for soil samples B–E increased and also in the acceptable range of 130–2320 μS/cm.
Part of the book: Advances in Bioremediation and Phytoremediation
Naphthenic acid (NA) is one of the components of heavy crude oil. It is composed of a carboxylic acid functional group attached to a hydrocarbon molecule. Heavy crude oils with high concentration of NA are usually classified as poor quality oil and are sold at cheaper price. The presence of high concentration of naphthenic acid in crude oil often result in limited life span of equipment used in exploration and refining processes due to corrosion. In order to improve the quality of such crude oil and to save cost, it becomes very important to remove NA compounds from it. Researchers, as well as the oil and gas industries, have been working on how to overcome this challenge, and several techniques have been developed for the removal of naphthenic acid from the crude oil. This study thus envisages to present the various recent techniques available for the removal of NA from heavy crude oil. It has been seen that of all the recent physical and chemical methods that are available, catalytic-based methods are effective and their effectiveness depend on the temperature at which the catalyst is calcined as well as the surface area of the catalyst.
Part of the book: Processing of Heavy Crude Oils