Epitaxial growth of Ge on Si has received considerable attention for its compatibility with Si process flow and the scarcity of Ge compared with Si. Applications that drive the efforts for integrating Ge with Si include high mobility channel in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, infrared photodetector in Si-based optical devices, and template for III-V growth to fabricate high-efficiency solar cells. Epitaxy Ge on Si can be used as a virtual Ge substrate for fabrication of III-V solar cells, which has advantages of superior mechanical properties and low cost over Ge wafers. This work investigates the epitaxial growth of Ge on Si using magnetron sputtering, which is an environment-friendly, inexpensive, high throughput, and simple deposition technique. The effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ge are analyzed. A novel method to epitaxially grow Ge on Si by magnetron sputtering at low temperature is developed using one-step aluminum-assisted crystallization. By applying an in-situ low temperature (50–150°C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge sputter depositions, the epitaxial growth of Ge on Si is achieved. This method significantly lowers the required temperature for and therefore the cost of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si.
Part of the book: Epitaxy
Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4-xSex (CZTS) is a promising thin film photovoltaic (PV) material with low cost and nontoxic constitute as well as decent PV properties, being regarded as a PV technology that is truly compatible with terawatt deployment. The kesterite CZTS thin film solar cell has experienced impressive development since its first report in 1996 with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of only 0.66% to current highest value of 13.0%, while the understanding of the material, device physics, and loss mechanism is increasingly demanded. This chapter will review the development history of kesterite technology, present the basic material properties, and summarize the loss mechanism and strategies to tackle these problems to date. This chapter will help researchers have brief background knowledge of kesterite CZTS technology and understand the future direction to further propel this new technology forward.
Part of the book: Thin Films Photovoltaics