Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major public health problem that affects up to 10–13% of the general population worldwide, imposes considerable socio-economic burden due to both the need for renal replacement therapy and, even more important, the negative influence on the overall patients’ health status. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the main cause of death in CKD patients and are triggered not only by the traditional CV risk factors but also by specific, uremia-related, factors. Among these, calcium-phosphate and bone metabolism disorders play a central role. Abnormalities of mineral metabolism occur early, evolve silently as the kidney function deteriorates, and are associated with CV morbidity and mortality, mainly by the development of valvular and vascular calcifications. This chapter aims to summarize the recent knowledge on the types and mechanisms of arterial calcifications, as well as their clinical implications, in the setting of CKD. The issue is significant for both nephrologists and cardiologists and could be an example of the requirement for interdisciplinary collaboration in the medical practice.
Part of the book: Chronic Kidney Disease