Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in nature and opportunistically infect different animals, including humans. Currently, NTM is emerging as an important cause of pulmonary infection among both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons worldwide. The clinical relevance of pulmonary NTM varies among species while showing geographical heterogeneity in distribution as well as pathogenicity. The outcome of the respiratory NTM disease is a consequence of a complex interplay between microbial factors and host susceptibility. Furthermore, HIV infection, cystic fibrosis, cancer, underlying chronic lung disease and history of tuberculosis (TB) may be associated as risk factors for active nontuberculosis pulmonary diseases (NTMPD). The diagnosis of NTMPD requires the presence of symptoms, radiographic evidences, microscopic observations and definitive laboratory diagnostics. Lung infections resulted from a clinically significant NTM species should be treated with appropriate antimicrobial regimen.
Part of the book: Mycobacterium