Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important parameter in determining the atmospheric and oceanic circulations, and satellite thermal infrared remote sensing can obtain the SST with very high spatio-temporal resolutions. The study first validated the accuracy of TERRA MODIS SST daytime and nighttime products with the timing SST measurements from the ships in the East China Sea (ECS) in February, May, August and November, 2001, and then the daily variation of daytime and nighttime SST difference was analyzed. Using 16-year MODIS SST monthly products data from February 2000 to January 2016, when all SST monthly products in February, May, August and November were averaged respectively, the seasonal spatial distribution pattern of SST in the ECS was discovered. After monthly sea surface temperature anomaly was finally processed by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF), the interannual variability of SST in the ECS was discussed. The results show that the MODIS SST daily products have a good accuracy with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) below 5%. The SST difference between day and night is the largest in winter, followed by spring, then for autumn and the smallest in summer, while the diurnal SST difference is very low for the same season in the different seas. The SST in the ECS displays the obvious seasonal spatial distribution pattern, in which the SST of winter is gradually increasing from north to south, while local temperature difference is the largest for 26.5°C in a year. In comparison, the SST in summer tends uniform and the difference is not more than 5°C in the whole sea. From the EOF analysis of SST anomaly, the interannual variability of SST in the ECS is affected by the East Asian monsoon, the latitudinal difference of solar radiation, the offshore circulation and the submarine terrain.
Part of the book: Sea Level Rise and Coastal Infrastructure