Carburized samples were prepared under different sets of conditions at Millat Equipment Limited, Lahore, Pakistan, using continuous carburizing furnace under a reducing atmosphere. The gas carburizing process parameters were determined by the Taguchi design of experiment (DoE), an orthogonal array of L9 type with the mixed level of control factors. The key process parameters in gas carburizing process such as delay quenching interval, hardening temperature, and soaking time in oil were optimized in terms of core hardness, effective case depth (ECD), and surface hardness. DoE approach elucidated that the best results in terms of core hardness are A2 (delay quenching for 60 seconds), B2 (hardening temperature of 800°C), and C2 (soaking in quenching oil for 300 seconds). However, the best results in terms of ECD were A1 (delay quenching for 45 seconds), B3 (hardening temperature of 820°C), and C1 (soaking in quenching oil for 180 seconds). In order to choose the optimized parameters from the results given by DoE, microscopic analysis was conducted. Microscopic analysis showed coarse bainitic structure in core and tempered martensite at the surface of the samples processed at A2 (delay quenching for 60 seconds), B2 (hardening temperature of 800°C), and C1 (soaking in quenching oil for 180 seconds) compared to the other process conditions (A1, B3, and C1), which shows fine bainitic structure at core and relatively higher amount of retained austenite at the surface. Finally, defect per million opportunities (DPMO) model exhibited that the samples produced from the optimized set of parameters (A2, B2, and C1) are highly reproducible, gaining DPMO of 83 parts per million (PPM).
The aim of this work was to develop the novel glass fiber–reinforced polyester hybrid composites (PHCs) filled with micro-sized titania (TiO2) particles and investigate their functional, mechanical and thermal behaviors. To equip PHCs of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) with multifunctional characteristics, TiO2 particles (1–5 wt.%) were dispersed with high disperser homogenizer using hand lay-up process (HLUP), combined with compression molding technique (CMT). The interactions (cross linking and hydrogen bonding) between polymeric chains, styrene, silica contents of glass fiber and TiO2 particles in PHCs were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The mechanical and thermal properties increased brilliantly by potential utilization of TiO2 particles. The 3 wt.% of TiO2-imbedded PHCs showed remarkable progress in tensile strength (46 MPa) as well as tensile modules (2.9 GPa) relative to unloaded PHCs. The 5 wt.% of TiO2-imbedded PHCs showed 61 and 64% increase in impact energy and hardness, respectively. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that controlled PHC-0 had the mass loss up to 50%, which was restricted to 17% by using TiO2 particles for PHC-5. Hence, it was inferred that micro-sized TiO2 was encouraging filler for incremental valuation in functional, mechanical and thermal characteristics of PHCs. After finding the marvelous mechanical and thermal properties of PHCs, it is endorsed that these polyester composites can be tested for high strength and high temperature applications.
Part of the book: Polyester