The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is one of the most pivotal transcription factors in mammalian cells. In many pathologies NF-κB is activated abnormally. This contributes to the development of various disorders such as cancer, acute kidney injury, lung disease, chronic inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. This book chapter focuses on how methylation of NF-κB regulates its target genes differentially. The knowledge from this chapter will provide scientific strategies for innovative therapeutic intervention of NF-κB in a wide range of diseases.
Part of the book: Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality in the United States. There are several therapeutic regimens employed to mitigate the mortality rate of cancer. This includes the use of chemotherapy, radiation, immunotherapy, and precision medicine/targeted therapy. Targeted therapy involves the use of drugs that target a specific pathway or biomolecule compromised in cancer for cancer treatment. Aberrant expression of epigenetic enzymes has been well documented for their contribution in driving tumorigenesis and other cancer hallmarks. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel drug discovery and development in epigenetics to help combat various cancer morbidities. Herein, we review the roles and consequences of dysregulated function of several epigenetic enzymes, with a focus on histone methyltransferases (HMTs). Additionally, we discussed the current efforts made in the development of small molecule inhibitors for a few representative HMTs implicated in different cancers. Furthermore, the common screening assays used in discovering potent small molecule inhibitors were also detailed in this chapter. Overall, this book chapter highlights the significance of targeting HMTs in different cancers and the clinical application potentials/limitations faced by the developed or emerging small molecule inhibitors of HMTs for the purpose of cancer therapy.
Part of the book: Translational Research in Cancer