Animal feed plays an important part in the food chain and the composition and quality of the livestock products (milk, meat and eggs) that people consume. Animal feeds are either classified as fodder, forage, or mixed feeds. Fodders could be classified as roughages (fresh cut forage, hay or dry forage, straw, root crops, stover and silage) and concentrates such as grains, legumes and by-products of processing. Safety is perhaps one of the most important reasons for feed analysis by the manufacturers and consumers. Storage duration and conditions for feed samples, as well as of stable and unstable parameters are important in sample preparation. A number of sub-samples for preparing final sample for various categories of feed products are recommended. Some analysis conducted on feed include; dry matter, crude ash, ash insoluble in acid (sand), crude protein, crude fat, fibre analysis, starch, gross energy, minerals. More are amino acids (excluding tryptophan), amino acids (tryptophan), fatty acids, vitamins, reducing sugar, mycotoxins, and pesticides. Various types of samples depending on their purposes and uses are available from check, standard, working and referee samples to composite types. Sampling errors in procedures exists and can be minimized by standards or purposes of the analysis, appropriate sampling equipment and using the right quantity of materials.
Air emissions from feeding operations and manure management in chicken production are among the major sources of environmental concerns globally. Nitrogen emissions in chicken production occur in several forms but mainly ammonia can contribute directly or indirectly to several environmental and public health hazards. Chicken production also contributes to some extent to climate change through the emissions of nitrous oxide, fine particulate matters, and methane. Emissions and nutrient losses take place in different systems and at every stage of chicken production operations. To effectively reduce the environmental impact of chicken production, appropriate measures should be taken across the chicken supply and manure management chain. Nutritional and manure management strategies for mitigating nitrogen emissions in chicken production are discussed. Challenges associated with the adoption of some of the mitigation strategies are identified and measures to address them are suggested. Co-benefits of mitigating nitrogen emissions in chicken production to the planet, the people and the producers are numerous.
Part of the book: Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Animal manure is a valuable resource if handled responsibly but a source of serious challenges and public health concerns if managed inappropriately. Risks associated with animal manure handling could be related to soil, water and air quality. In spite of this, non-sustainable animal manure management practices are still common in some places. Sustainable management of animal manure requires multi-prong approaches and holds several benefits both to the farmers and the general public. The importance attached to the handling and management of manure in several countries has led to the enactment of relevant legislations, regulations, standards and policies to promote sustainable handling of animal manure. Some of these are enacted at community, state, national, regional and international levels. Several techniques ranging from simple, low-cost to complex strategies are available for proper handling of animal manure. The proposed chapter will highlight some unsustainable animal manure handling practices. It will discuss some of the risks associated with irresponsible handling of animal manure as well as some of the measures to promote sustainable animal manure management.
Part of the book: Agricultural Waste and Residues