Two-thirds of the megacities of the world are standing on the coastal areas. Today, coastal megacities are under the impact of varying factors like human-induced changes such as urbanization and mega projects and the natural ones as global climate change and natural disasters. Many European coastal cities are examining the impacts of the sea level change due to the global climate change. Regarding its long history, interplay with the sea and the drastic population, Istanbul captures a significant place both in Turkey and in the world. It is standing as a city, which is phase by phase losing its interaction with the sea due to the mega projects generated within the last decades. Although their limited number; public squares and parks attached with the promenades are the only openings to the sea and they contribute maintaining the continuity and sustainability of coastal identity. This chapter handles five significant historical squares and interrogates their interplay with the natural and physical challenges of the twenty-first century. Regarding this aim, case areas are evaluated by parameters of morphological attributes, formation of squares, qualification of the surfaces and coastal-based natural disaster impacts such as sea level rise and tsunami through literature-based studies and spatio-temporal diagrammatic maps.
Part of the book: Sea Level Rise and Coastal Infrastructure