Global navigation satellite system-reflectometry (GNSS-R) as an efficient tool for remote sensing has gained increasing interests in the last two decades, due to its unique characteristics. It uses GNSS signals as sources of opportunity, providing precise, continuous, all-weather, and 24 hours’ detections, which play a key role in many land applications. The fundamental theoretical part of GNSS-R technique is examined at first. Then, GNSS-R methodologies applied in the soil moisture content, vegetation biomass sensing, and altimetry applications are also detailed. One retrieval method uses only RH (right-hand) reflected data. Another retrieval method for soil moisture content (SMC) aimed to calibrate the measurement by using water reflections, based on the bistatic equations with LH (left-hand) reflected and RH direct signals. The other method for SMC retrieval is related to the polarimetric ratio (PR), the ratio of LH/RH reflected signals can reveal the fluctuations of the SMC. Another vital parameter vegetation biomass was observed by using the variation of reflectivity of the LH and RH reflected components. Finally, the C/A code method was used for exploring the possibility to the altimetry estimation. The features of GNSS-R technique made it a promising remote sensing technique in hydrology, climatology carbon cycles, and other potential applications.
Part of the book: Recent Advances and Applications in Remote Sensing