Functional food is a food containing components that show beneficial effects on one or more body functions and improve general condition and health or significantly affect lowering of disease risks. This chapter is aimed to examine the effect of dietary intake of omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3‐PUFA) on cardiovascular health. This chapter presents current knowledge on functional poultry products and the reasons to consume them, omega‐3 enrichment of eggs and poultry meat, and the differences in profile of fatty acids in conventional and omega‐3–enriched eggs. The second part of the chapter focuses on the metabolism of fatty acids and effectiveness of n‐3 PUFA in the improvement of endothelial function, improvement of elasticity of the vascular wall and the anti‐inflammatory effects in patients with chronic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, and overall effect on cardiovascular health and protection. To achieve long‐term protective effects, the functional food should be consumed on daily basis. There are no specific constrains in taking functional food; even more, it can be recommended to athletes and cardiovascular patients. General population can also benefit from eating functional food enriched with n‐3 PUFA due to their anti‐inflammatory and vascular‐protective effects.
Part of the book: Superfood and Functional Food
Biomarkers are biological indicators of processes that are part of ethiopathogenesis of the diseases, and can, but do not have to be causal to diseases. One very important question is how specific and sensitive the marker is, since one molecule can appear in many conditions. Biomarkers of endothelial cell activation can be very diverse, from biochemical/metabolic to functional biomarkers. Activation of endothelial cells is part of physiological as well as pathophysiological response of cardiovascular system in conditions as physical activity, growth, pregnancy and in all cardiometabolic diseases (e.g., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune inflammatory diseases, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, ischemia and reperfusion, etc.). During activation, there is a change in endothelial cell morphology and function, which could be a defensive response of endothelium to provoking factor or could lead to increased risk for the injury and end organ damage. This chapter aims to overview current knowledge on established biomarkers of normal and disease-related endothelial activation and to provide information on novel, potential biomarkers in common cardiometabolic diseases.
Part of the book: Endothelial Dysfunction
The mechanisms by which HBO exerts its potentially beneficial effects are not completely clear. Interactions of mechanisms affecting endothelial dysfunction, NO synthesis, EETs and HETE formation, CYP expression changes, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system changes, and multiple effects on inflammation take place that might be considered as mediating factors for the observed positive (or negative) clinical effects in diabetes mellitus (for instance in chronic diabetic wounds). Studies on vasculature in diabetic animal models can provide us with more information that can help us understand its effects on blood vessel function. This chapter discusses the most relevant studies that have assessed the potential mechanisms of HBO-induced vascular functional changes in diabetic animal models.
Part of the book: Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Research and Clinical Practice