This chapter presents an overview of possibilities for the therapy of melanoma, current knowledge and future direction. Skin cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancers. Melanoma is much less common than basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers, but it is far more dangerous. Detailed knowledge of melanoma at the molecular level allows to develop new treatment alternatives and to design effective new drugs. There are two approaches in therapy of melanoma in the present based on immunotherapy and targeted therapy or their combination. Immunotherapy includes immune checkpoint blockades, whereas targeted therapy is represented by protein kinase inhibitors, such as BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, and NRAS inhibitors. Detailed knowledge of protein structure and the understanding of its role in key signaling pathways in melanoma development lead to the designation of new protein kinase inhibitors in targeted therapy.
Part of the book: Human Skin Cancers
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a tetrameric enzyme that in vertebrates exists in five electrophoretically distinguishable forms known as isoenzymes. According to their different mobility to anode, they are denoted LDH1 (H4), LDH2 (H3M), LDH3 (H2M2), LDH4 (HM3), and LDH5 (M4). A buffer system of the pH values 8.6–8.8 is commonly used for the separation of these isoenzymes in mammals. In the case of bird LDHs, the observation of five fractions is very difficult under this condition as they usually produce a pattern of one diffuse zone. Isoelectric focusing technique (IEF) in the pH range of 3–9 enabled a good and clear resolution of all five bird LDHs. Using this technique, it was also possible to observe the pattern in some tissues of chicken embryo.
Part of the book: Electrophoresis