Entry into mitosis and meiosis is orchestrated by the phosphorylation of thousands of mitotic substrates under the control of active Cdk1-cyclin B complexes. To avoid futile cycles of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, the specific Cdk1-antagonizing phosphatase, PP2A-B55δ, must be simultaneously inactivated. This process is achieved by the activation of the kinase Greatwall (Gwl), which phosphorylates ARPP19. Gwl-phosphorylated ARPP19 then inactivates PP2A-B55δ to allow Cdk1 activation as well as to secure the phosphorylation state of mitotic substrates. This chapter discusses a series of recent works showing that ARPP19 is also phosphorylated by another kinase, PKA. Phosphorylated by PKA, ARPP19 arrests Xenopus oocytes in G2 before the first meiotic division. Therefore, depending on its phosphorylation state by either PKA or Gwl, ARPP19 either restrains or activates Cdk1 in Xenopus oocytes. Beyond the understanding of the mechanisms of meiotic and mitotic cell division, the control of ARPP19 by its dual phosphorylation enlightens the cAMP-regulated signalization pathways that control vital functions in numerous eukaryotic cell types.
Part of the book: Protein Phosphorylation