Rhizophora are salt-tolerant mangrove flora located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. This review summarizes frequently occurring fungal endophytes in Rhizophora. In total, 41 families and 64 genera belonging to 23 taxonomic orders of Ascomycota have been reported. Among those discussed here, Pestalotiopsis, Penicillium, and Mucor are the most abundant fungal genera, and they are widely studied. In previous studies, 195 metabolites were encountered in Rhizophora-derived endophytic fungi, and their structures are reported within a biogenetic context. Bioassays showed antitumor, antimicrobial, as well as anti-H1N1 activities to be the most notable bioactivities of the secondary metabolites discussed.
Part of the book: Mangrove Ecosystem Ecology and Function