Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined by a recurring and persistent concern characterized by psychic suffering caused by a possible physical imperfection in appearance. It is a severe psychiatric condition, duly confirmed by neuroanatomical findings, very peculiar repetitive behaviors, and specific personalities. The prevalence of BDD is increasing around the world and differs between countries, because of cultural differences and different health-care systems. This increase is worrying because BDD is a pathology that presents comorbidity like severe depression, suicidal ideation, and functional and social impairment. However, BDD is an unrecognized and often not diagnosed in our society. Many patients are ashamed of their complaints and do not usually seek psychiatric help with ease, and unfortunately, they seek help in cosmetic and surgical treatments to improve their appearance, and these professionals are not yet prepared to assist in the diagnosis of this disorder. Therefore, this chapter presents not only the psychopathology of BDD but also its associations with other pathologies and their main factors of influence. Finally, we present a clinical experience with a detailed description of a clinical case. The aim is to contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology and also to future research that may benefit society and these patients.
Part of the book: Pathophysiology