Minimally invasive treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are a cornerstone in the management of this challenging disease. For many years, percutaneously guided ablative techniques, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, and microwave ablation (MWA), have successfully treated many different solid malignancies including HCC. Since the initial implementation of these ablative techniques, there have been many advances in the design, technique, and patient selection as well as investigation into the body’s response to treatment. The mechanisms of thermal-based ablative techniques, advantages and disadvantages of each technique, subsequent immunologic response following ablation, and advances in care that utilize combination therapy to potentiate the immunologic response creating a robust and long-term immunity to HCC are outlined in this chapter.
Part of the book: Hepatocellular Carcinoma