A total of 90 original articles concerning the varietal characterization and identification by means of SSR analysis of the five most economically relevant crops in Italy (i.e., Olea europaea L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Vitis vinifera L., Triticum spp. and Malus × domestica Borkh.) have been selected and reviewed. Since the genetic traceability of processed products may result more complex, wine and olive oil have been considered too. Specifically, this chapter deals with three main aspects: (i) the criteria adopted for the selection of the most appropriate number, type, and distribution of SSR marker loci to be employed for varietal genotyping, (ii) the use of genetic statistics and parameters for the evaluation of the discriminant ability and applicability of SSR marker loci, and (iii) how to make different experimental works on the same species that are standardized, reliable, and comparable. What emerges from the studies reviewed here is a lack of wider consensus among the authors regarding the strategy to design and to adopt for genotyping plant varieties with SSR markers. This finding highlights the urgent need to establish a common procedure, especially for characterizing and preserving landraces, and for supporting its rediscovery and valorization locally.
Part of the book: Rediscovery of Landraces as a Resource for the Future