Considering the implications the formulation may have on the effectiveness and residuality of an active ingredient, four trials were conducted comparing two commercial formulations of the diazinon insecticide, two of acetamiprid, two of lambda-cyhalothrin, and, finally, three formulations of imidacloprid. For diazinon and acetamiprid, the comparison parameters used correspond to efficacy against three key pests in apple trees: Cydia pomonella, Diaspidiotus perniciosus, and Pseudococcus viburni; for l-cyhalothrin, efficacy against C. pomonella was compared; and for imidacloprid, differences in control P. viburni were established. In all cases, their persistence was established in terms of initial and final residue levels in samples of fruits, at 1 and 25 days after application (DAA). Different formulations of the same insecticide correspond to a relevant factor in the general behavior that each product presents in field conditions, being able to affect parameters such as its persistence in the fruit and/or initial deposit of the active ingredient. This variation was demonstrated in the comparison performed on acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and diazinon, but it was not so in l-cyhalothrin. Efficacy was affected in all parameters evaluated for each group of insecticides, demonstrating that different formulations can deliver different biological activity in the control of various pests.
Part of the book: Insecticides
The spotted wing drosophila Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is endemic in Asia. This species was first reported in Chile in early 2017 in the region of La Araucanía, Los Ríos, and Los Lagos, but it has dispersed to other regions of the south-central area of the country, currently being in the category of plague present with restricted distribution. D. suzukii is a polyphagous pest, and it infests a wide range of fruit crops, including grapes, cherries, as well as an increasing number of wild fruits. Chile is the main cherry-producing country in the south of the world, providing mainly to the Asian market, so, although the pest is not a quarantine problem for this destination of the fruit, its potential damage is high due to the decrease in yield, fruit deterioration, and increased pre- and postharvest rot. The local productive reality also provides various hosts to the plague, allowing its expression and adaptation, for example, in blueberry orchards. This report summarizes the first signs of economic damage and explores the first results of control delivered by various insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin, spinetoram, and spinosad. Also, repellent effect of other compounds was studied.