Farmed marine mussels from genera Mytilus are important for the human diet by providing high levels of proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fat soluble vitamins and carbohydrates. Recently, black mussels are commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal changes in proximate composition and to focus on the lipid bioactive components such as fatty acids, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins (A, E and D3), and carotenoids (astaxanthin, beta-carotene) in farmed mussels (M. galloprovincialis) from the northern part of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. All analyzed samples presented high protein and low lipid content. The fatty acids (FA) profile was characterized by the highest amount of PUFA, as 22:6 omega-3 (n-3) dominated, regardless of the seasons. In all seasons, the content of n-3 was significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. The amounts of cholesterol were in the range 62.3 (summer) to 78 (autumn) mg 100−1 g ww. The highest amounts of vitamin D3 (3.1 μg 100−1 g ww), vitamin E (2525 μg 100−1 g ww), astaxanthin (0.470 mg 100−1 g ww), and beta-carotene (0.445 mg 100−1 g ww) were found in the summer season. The studied mussel aquaculture from Bulgaria presented a high beneficial potential in all seasons in terms of human health protection.
Part of the book: Biological Resources of Water