Salivary Gland Cancers: A Survey through History, Classifications and Managements
In this chapter, we are going to discuss about salivary glands cancers, their clinical manifestations and categories, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. We will go through details in each part in both clinical and surgical aspects based on recently prominent published studies and research in prestigious journals. After a short review on clinical features, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, we will show staging and tumor node metastasis (TNM) classification of major salivary gland tumors and also basic principles of approach to salivary gland cancers. A little will be explained about basic surgical procedures for removal of cancers and benign tumors.
Part of the book: Head and Neck Cancer
Thyroid Cancers: Considerations, Classifications, and Managements
Rapidly increasing trend of thyroid cancer incidence has turned this disease into a global concern. An estimated number of 64,300 new cases of thyroid cancer occurred in men and women in 2016, which represents 3.8% of all new cancer cases of USA (https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/thyro.html). Thus, there is a high possibility for every physician to encounter a case of thyroid cancer during his/her professional lifetime. In this chapter, we clarified epidemiology, different categories, and new approaches toward diagnosis and management of thyroid cancer.
Part of the book: Head and Neck Cancer
Tissue Engineering Applications in Maxillofacial Surgery
Nowadays, oral and maxillofacial surgeons face serious difficulties in reconstruction of large defects caused by trauma, cancer, or congenital deformities. Considering each part of oral and maxillofacial region consisting of several tissues, it is necessary to reconstruct these architectures layer by layer. Through years surgeons use different forms of grafts to reconstruct these defects. As these grafts and techniques are well described and used routinely, it should have been noticed that they are not without complications. This is where idea behind tissue engineering steps in. “Tissue engineering” due to its multi-aspect properties can be defined as application of methods and science of engineering toward the understanding of structure-function relationships of mammalian tissues in both normal and pathological forms to improve and develop biologic substitutes to reach the main goal of restoring, maintaining, and stabilization of tissue function. From standpoint of surgery, tissue engineering is not considered as a potential step anymore, but as an available approach to reach the ultimate goal of reconstruction procedures. The aim of this chapter is to defne concepts and advances in tissue engineering (TE). Also, review TE applications in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery with bolding its clinical applications and complications based on novel and high-quality published researches.
Part of the book: Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering
Cochlear Implants: An Excursus into the Technologies and Clinical Applications
Hearing loss causes severe alterations in social function and daily communications. Cochlear device implantation (CDI) is the only beneficiary method for auditory rehabilitation in patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Regarding a report in 2014, over 300,000 people had received cochlear implants throughout the world since December 2012 among which about 60,000 were adults and 40,000 were children in the United States. In this chapter, we discuss the history, origin, mechanism of action, and type of cochlear implants, as well as method of surgery and complications.
Part of the book: An Excursus into Hearing Loss
Herbal Medicine in the Management of Tinnitus
Tinnitus, which is commonly defined as “ringing in the ears” by the patients, is a perception of an auditory sensation without any accompanying external stimulation. It accounts for a notable part of visits in otolaryngology clinics and has been estimated to involve about 5–15% of adult population making serious problems in 3–5% of patients. Tinnitus causes a lot of problems for patients, their family, and guardians and significantly decreases quality of life of patients. Many treatment methods have been proposed and presented for Tinnitus since the first year of diagnosis. These methods range from conservative management and chemical medications to surgical methods. As the other diseases and conditions, herbal medicine has been trying to treat Tinnitus and a variety of medications have been proposed. In this chapter, we aimed to have a comprehensive review on the current herbal medications of Tinnitus from all over the world.
Part of the book: Management of Tinnitus
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Things to Consider and Ways to Manage
Involving more commonly the premature (less than 37 weeks of gestational age) infants, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is an important clinical syndrome responsible for a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The main progress in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) management is attributable to prescription of surfactant for fastening pulmonary maturation. Respiratory protection, such as mechanical ventilation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure, and surfactant are building blocks of disease treatment. In this chapter, we are going to have a rapid review on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatments of RDS.
Part of the book: Update on Critical Issues on Infant and Neonatal Care
Breastfeeding and Gut Microbiota
Human breast milk (HBM) not only is a source of nutrition for infants but also contains a variety of biologically active components and bacterial species. These molecules and bacteria guide both intestinal microbiota and infantile immune system. Recently published studies have found several vital roles for gut microbiota including effects on the individual’s personality, decreased predisposition to the diseases, and a variety of other health-related consequences such as possible therapeutic effects or preventing role. In this chapter the components of human breast milk and its effect on shaping the human gut microbiota have been reviewed.
Part of the book: Infant Feeding
Neuromodulation in the Age of Modern Neuroimaging Technologies
Most commonly used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a new neurosurgical method whose other applications are still under development. Neuroimaging has a variety of main roles in DBS including evaluating the final electrode contact position, localizing the target nucleus, and detecting complications. Despite being a neurosurgical method, successful DBS intervention is highly dependent on an appropriate neuroimaging technique. For achieving satisfying clinical results, DBS needs the presence of neuroradiologists. In this chapter, we have reviewed the role of neuroimaging in all stages of deep brain stimulation as well as the underlying mechanism in this domain.
Part of the book: Neurostimulation and Neuromodulation in Contemporary Therapeutic Practice
Common Congenital Neural Tube Anomalies: Epidemiology, Classification, Management and Outcome View all chapters
The prevalence of Congenital central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, including those of the brain and spinal cord, is 3 to 6% in stillbirth and 0.14 to 0.16% in live births. Holoprosencephaly, spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele are major neural tube defects (NTD) encountered in clinical practice. Proper management and diagnosis of these conditions mandate a good understanding of their etiology and classification. Research is being conducted to investigate the etiopathogenesis and treatment of these anomalies. In this chapter, we have reviewed the clinical and pathological aspects of the major NTDs and the latest principles of their management.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies in Newborn Infants