The challenges for weed management have increased in rice cultivation due to the high number of cases of herbicide-resistant weeds, especially the widespread distribution of imidazolinone-resistant weedy rice. Therefore, there has been particular interest in preventive, physical, and cultural methods in recent decades. In this context, the adoption of the rice-soybean rotation is reported to be one of the most important factors for weed management in rice fields. Additionally, the use of a diversified crop rotation enables the implementation of a broader herbicide program, which is an important feature influencing weed population dynamics. Rice-soybean rotation has been adopted by farmers to control problematic weed species, reduce seed bank of troublesome weed species, and prevent rice grain yield and quality losses caused by its interference. This crop rotation scheme has brought several benefits when it comes to weed management; however, there are also some drawbacks when adopting this strategy such as the limited productivity of soybean and new weed species becoming problematic, such as Conyza species. Thus, this chapter explores the advantages and disadvantages of adopting crop rotation in Brazilian lowlands, and proposes a set of strategies to successfully implement crop rotation in lowland soils as a tool for weed management.
Part of the book: Rice Crop
Almost all plants are negatively affected by neighboring plants, which impose some degree of competition within the population, depending mainly on the quantity and quality of natural resources available in the environment. In rice cultivation, the occurrence of a high and diverse infestation of weeds results in high competition levels among the species. In addition, the high and growing number of cases about herbicide-resistant weeds, especially the widespread distribution of Imidazolinone-resistant weedy-rice and the high infestation of weeds belonging to the Echinochloa genus, has increased the competition levels within rice cultivation due to the lack of control. Therefore, the inclusion of rice cultivars with greater competitive ability represents a promising tool for weed management, since new cases of resistance to herbicides are often reported and alternative control strategies are scarce. The use of rice cultivars with a greater ability to suppress weeds can alleviate the competitive effect of these species, giving priority to the crop for the use of environmental resources due to the faster occupation of the ecological niches. Thus, this chapter aims to explore the competitive ability of rice cultivars against troublesome weed species, accounting for the role of their morphological and physiological traits as a function of environment-friendly crop practices.
Part of the book: Plant Competition in Cropping Systems