Newborn hearing screening programs for congenital disorders and chronic diseases are expanding worldwide, and children are identified at the earliest possible stage. However, the practice is limited or absent in much of the developing world, such as Africa. Recent epidemiological studies show significant increase of hearing impairments in school-age children (around 20 in 100). Hearing disorders disturb the child’s perception of sound, as well as the development of speech which in consequence negatively affects the child relations in society. The early detection of hearing impairments in children enables the effective implementation of medical and rehabilitation procedures or preventive treatment. According to the guidelines of the European Scientific Consensus on Hearing, the detection and treatment of hearing disorders in early school-age children are of the highest importance. That idea was one of the priorities during Polish Presidency of the Council of the European Union (the second half of 2011). The Institute team, in collaboration with numerous national centers, has laid the groundwork for screening programs and developed methods, procedures, and devices for carrying them out. In addition, the Institute was the coordinator and producer of many programs. Based on this, two screening models have been created—newborn and school-age children.
Part of the book: An Excursus into Hearing Loss
Electrophysiology is an objective evaluation method that allows investigating the responses of the central auditory nervous system arising from the capture of neuronal responses through surface electrodes. In addition to the possibility of investigating and diagnosing different pathologies, electrophysiology proves to be an effective and effective instrument in monitoring auditory intervention programs. Auditory rehabilitation programs is based on the premise of neuroplasticity that derives from a capacity for neuronal change due to intense sound stimulation, specific and directed to the patient’s needs. Throughout this chapter, current studies that correlate electrophysiology with auditory training programs in different clinical populations will be presented, such as: hearing in typically developed individuals, hearing and school difficulties, hearing and CAPD, hearing and otitis media, hearing and hearing loss, and hearing and voice. Electrophysiological tests are important objective measures in predicting the gains to be expected from auditory training programs.
Part of the book: Auditory System