Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used medical technology for diagnosis of various tissue abnormalities, detection of tumors. The active development in the computerized medical image segmentation has played a vital role in scientific research. This helps the doctors to take necessary treatment in an easy manner with fast decision making. Brain tumor segmentation is a hot point in the research field of Information technology with biomedical engineering. The brain tumor segmentation is motivated by assessing tumor growth, treatment responses, computer-based surgery, treatment of radiation therapy, and developing tumor growth models. Therefore, computer-aided diagnostic system is meaningful in medical treatments to reducing the workload of doctors and giving the accurate results. This chapter explains the causes, awareness of brain tumor segmentation and its classification, MRI scanning process and its operation, brain tumor classifications, and different segmentation methodologies.
Part of the book: High-Resolution Neuroimaging
Down Syndrome is a genetic condition that occurs when there is an extra copy of a chromosome 21 in the newly formed fetus. EIF is observed as one of the possible symptoms of DS. But in comparison to the other symptoms like nasal bone hypoplasia, increased thickness in the nuchal fold, EIF is very much less prone to DS. Hence, recommending the pregnant women with EIF to undergo the diagnostic process like amniocentesis, CVS and PUBS is not always a right choice as these diagnostic processes suffer serious drawbacks like miscarriage, uterine infections. This chapter “Ultrasonic Detection of Down Syndrome Using Multiscale Quantiser With Convolutional Neural Network” presents a new ultrasonic method to detect EIF that can cause DS. Ultrasonic Detection of Down Syndrome Using Multiscale Quantiser with Convolutional Neural Network entails two stages namely i) training phase and ii) testing phase. Training phase aims at learning the features of EIF that can cause DS whereas testing phase classifies the EIF into DS positive or DS negative based on the knowledge cluster formed during the training phase. A new algorithm Multiscale Quantiser with the convolutional neural network is used in the training phase. Enhanced Learning Vector Classifier is used in the testing phase to differentiate the normal EIF from EIF causing DS. The performance of the proposed system is analysed in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and specificity.
Part of the book: Computational Optimization Techniques and Applications