Nanoporous gold (np-Au) has many interesting and useful properties that make it a material of interest for use in many technological applications. Its biocompatible nature and ability to serve as a support for self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols and their derivative make it a suitable support for the immobilization of carbohydrates, enzymes, proteins, and DNA. Its chemically inert, physically robust and conductive high-surface area makes it useful for the design of electrochemistry-based chemical/bio-sensors and reactors. Furthermore, it is also used as solid support for organic molecular synthesis and biomolecules separation. Its enhanced optical property has application in design of plasmonics-based sensitive biosensors. In fact, np-Au is one of the few materials that can be used as a transducer for both optical and electrochemical biosensing. Due to the presence of low-coordination surface sites, np-Au shows remarkable catalytic activity for oxidation of molecules like carbon monoxide and methanol. Owing to the importance of np-Au, in this chapter we will highlight different strategies of fabrication of np-Au and its emerging applications based on its unique properties.
Part of the book: Noble and Precious Metals