Choledochal cysts are congenital bile duct anomalies. These cystic dilatations of the biliary tree can involve the extrahepatic biliary radicles, the intrahepatic biliary radicles, or both. The etiology remains unknown, but choledochal cysts are likely to be congenital in nature. Cyst excision is the definitive treatment of choice for choledochal cyst because of the high morbidity and high risk of carcinoma after internal drainage, a commonly used treatment in the past. CDC is a congenital anomaly involving cystic dilatation of various ducts of biliary tree. The precise etiology of extrahepatic cysts continues to remain unclear. The most commonly accepted theory is an anomalous pancreatobiliary duct junction (APBDJ) and abnormal function of the sphincter of Oddi. Proper imaging plays an essential role in preoperative planning. Proper diagnosis evaluation and management is essential for optimal management. Type I cysts are the most frequently encountered. Choledochal cysts can have variable presentations. Hepatobiliary ultrasound and MRCP are the present day standards for imaging; early diagnosis should be the norm to avoid possible late complications of cholangitis, cirrhosis, hepaticolithiasis and spontaneous perforation. Excision of the cyst with hepaticojejunostomy is the best approach.
Part of the book: Gastrointestinal Surgery
Constipation is a common problem in children. It accounts for 20–30% of pediatric outdoor office. It is common in both rich and poor countries despite the belief that developing countries consume food rich in fiber. Normal bowel movement in breastfed babies may range from several times a day to once in every 10 days. Constipation can be both functional and pathological. Functional constipation has no underlying cause and is the most common type of constipation found in children. My main focus will be on this common type of constipation. In functional constipation routine, digital rectal examination is not recommended unless impaction is suspected. Abdominal radiography is recommended only in equivocal clinical examination or if impaction is suspected and examination not conclusive. Dietary and behavior modifications, toilet training, and parent education are important in the management of functional constipation. Initial management of functional constipation includes disimpaction of stools. Lactulose is safe in all age groups. Polyethylene glycol is more effective than lactulose but is costly. Maintenance therapy may take some time till constipation improves. Some rare situations such as refractory and slow transient constipation are also discussed in this chapter.
Part of the book: Constipation