Cypermethrin (Cyp), is one of the most common contaminants in freshwater aquatic systems. We evaluated its possible genotoxic effect and oxidative stress in retinal cells of adult zebrafish exposed to 0.3 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L Cyp. Both the histological and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques showed the presence of apoptotic cells in the zebrafish retina after 9 days of treatment with 0.6 μg/L Cyp. Thus, histone γ-H2AX, a double-stranded DNA damage marker, was immunodetected in both the outer and inner nuclear layer after exposure to 0.6 μg/L Cyp for 12 days, while the anti-caspase-3 apoptotic antibody was detected in the outer nuclear layer. Compared with the morphological evidence, the damage index (DI) showed significant differences with 0.3 μg/L from day 9, while with 0.6 μg/L all the stages evaluated showed very significant differences. According to these results, it was verified that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly after exposure to 0.6 μg/L Cyp. The same treatment caused a significant positive regulation of the mRNA levels of both genes. These results indicate that Cyp causes DNA damage and oxidative stress. This pyrethroid also has the potential to induce apoptosis in the cells of the retina.
Part of the book: Genotoxicity