Sleep-related breathing disorders are a group of clinical conditions ranging from habitual snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) during the lifespan. In children, other risk factors are represented by adenotonsillar hypertrophy, rhinitis, nasal structure alteration, cleft palate, velopharyngeal flap surgery, pharyngeal masses, craniofacial malformations, genetic syndrome (i.e. Down syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Apert syndrome), genetic hypoplasia mandibular (i.e. Pierre Robin syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, Shy-Drager syndrome, and Cornelia De Lange syndrome), craniofacial traumas, chronic or seasonal rhinitis, asthma, neuromuscular syndromes, brainstem pathologies (i.e. Arnold-Chiari malformation and Joubert syndrome), achondroplasia, and mucopolysaccharidosis. OSAS may affect the executive functioning such as motivational ability, planning, behavior modulation, ability to complete an action program, identification of functional strategies to achieve the goal, problem solving, flexibility, monitoring and self-assessment of behavior in relation to results, change of task, or behavior in the light of emerging information, which may be all impaired by nocturnal intermittent hypoxia also during the developmental age. The clinical presentation of OSAS can mimic other neurobehavioral symptoms, such as ADHD syndrome, learning problems, or can exacerbate the Fragile X syndrome, and generalized non-convulsive epilepsy symptoms.
Part of the book: Updates in Sleep Neurology and Obstructive Sleep Apnea