A total of 113 cases of fetal hydrocephalus with a lethal outcome (FHLO) from the Embryo-Fetopathologic Clinic at the Center for Maternity and Neonatology, Tunis, Tunisia and Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic at St. George EAD University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bulgaria were studied, 86 of which had syndrome malformations: neural tube defects (NTDs)—29.2%, chromosomal abnormalities—23.9%, skeletal dysplasias—9.8%, VACTERL association—5.3%, Dandy-Walker malformation—3.4%, Other—14.2%. Risk factors for FHLO are miscarriages (odds ratio (OR): 19.500; confidence interval (CI): 4.020-94.594), stillbirths (OR: 10.897; CI: 1.169-10.564) and previous birth of a malformative child (OR = 5.385; CI: 1.385–18.896). FHLO is significantly associated with a maternal age over 40 years and third degree consanguinity of the fetus (OR = 18.500; CI: 1.146–298.547). The trisomies in our study were 27 (23.9%) and are significantly associated with an age above 38 years and FHLO (OR = 13.689; CI: 3.952–52.122). In medical abortion, stillbirth, or neonatal death, a fetopathological study enriches our knowledge of malformations, complements and completes the ultrasound examination, modifies genetic counseling, and determines the medical behavior in subsequent pregnancies. Also, associated risk factors and fetopathological changes in FHLO must be studied to increase the ultrasound prenatal diagnosis success.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies