Today, high-performance requirements for asphalt pavements demand enhanced properties for bitumen to withstand the environmental condition and traffic demand. On the other hand, the rapid growth in population and economy results in a continuously increased material consumption, and subsequently waste generation. Among various waste materials, rubber and plastic, including high-density polyethylene (HDPE), constitute some part of the non-biodegradable solid wastes worldwide. Because of the great difficulties in managing the non-biodegradable wastes and the required volume of bitumen, the idea of using plastic and rubber as bitumen modifier in new asphalt mixtures appears to be an effective and meaningful utilization of these materials. As binder plays an important role in the final performance of the asphalt mixture, an understanding of modified binder properties is essential in designing an asphalt mixture. To this point, since compatibility of asphalt mixture with polymer is the most important factor in the blend of polymers and asphalt, the properties of the waste polymers were evaluated in this ongoing research by means of advanced thermal analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). This chapter presents the results of this experimental study to evaluate the properties of polymers as potential modifier for virgin bitumen in asphalt mixture.
Part of the book: Modified Asphalt
The current decision-making problems is more complex than it was in the past, prompting the need for decision support. Most real-world decision-making situations are subject to bounded rationality; whereby the technical and economic evaluation of all solution alternatives (branches) is bounded by the consideration of dominant subjective constraints. The early definition of DSS introduced it as a system that intended to support decision makers in semi-structured problems that could not be completely supported by algorithms. DSSs were planned to be an accessory for managers to expand their capabilities but not to replace them. Decision support systems could provide the means to complement decision makers by quantitatively supporting managerial decisions that could otherwise be based on personal intuition and experience. In addition to the traditional DSS characteristics (i.e., data and model orientation, interactivity), the inclusion of an intelligent knowledge base would be required to quantify the impacts of both technical (hard) and subjective (soft) constraints.
Part of the book: Management of Information Systems