The chapter presents the methods for determining the rate movement of the slope, which is based on an evaluation of a distortion of the tree trunk. The distortion develops during the growth period of the tree, and its conditions are trajectory and speed of material movement, which takes away the root system of a tree. The distortion of the tree trunk explains kinematics of the root system movement. The distortion curve is constructed from the results of measurements carried out on several horizontal levels of the tree trunk. The speed of movement of the slope is calculated from the age of the tree and the length of the path of movement of the tree, which is derived from the distortion curve of the tree trunk. The length of the track of tree movement is drawn from horizontal position of the gravity point of the curve corresponding with the longitudinal axis of the tree trunk. This method is documented in one example. The method is appropriate to quantify the movement of the latent long slope.
Part of the book: Proceedings of the 2nd Czech-China Scientific Conference 2016
The application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to measurement of absolute concentration of hydroxyl radicals in cold atmospheric discharges is described. Though only the case of OH is presented, the method can be directly applied to other molecules as well. Starting from the rate equations for the LIF process, the main formulas for two- and multi-level excitation scheme are derived. It is also shown how to use partially saturated LIF in practice, enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio. Practical tips for automating the data evaluation are given, allowing processing large data sets, particularly suitable for planar measurements. Gas temperature estimation from fluorescence on different rotational absorption lines is shown as an attractive method for obtaining temperature maps with high spatial resolution. The important aspects of calibration are discussed, particularly the overlap of the laser line with the selected absorption line and the measurement of the Rayleigh scattering for sensitivity calibration, together with the common sources of errors. The application of OH(A, v′ = 0 ← X, v″ = 0) excitation scheme to the effluent of atmospheric pressure plasma jet ignited in argon and of OH(A, v′ = 1 ← X, v″ = 0) to the plasma of coplanar surface barrier discharge in air and in water vapor is shown.
Part of the book: Photon Counting