Traditional agricultural system is referring to the maize production based on indigenous or farmers knowledge and practices that have been developed through many generations. In the area of study, genetic maize diversity was explored by the expression of quantitative traits of the ear and the race classification approach. Evaluation results indicated that the native populations adapted to the transition and highland (above 2000 masl) areas, showed a contrasting yield response when they were evaluated at the intermediate environment; whereas, those populations adapted to the lowland and intermediate altitudes showed a satisfactory yield performance in both environments. The above performance pattern is essential because it may be useful to identify favorable alleles that, in a local population per se or through genetic combination, results in population changes in allele frequencies that could mitigate the effects of climate changes, particularly in maize populations adapted to highland altitudes. Selection procedures applied to a local adapted population can be managed attending different goals, including the conservation of genetic diversity (per se selection), and to develop novel germplasm. The introgression of foreign germplasm into a local population and the application of three selection cycles resulted in a novel variety (JAGUAN) adapted to a regional northeast Mexico environmental conditions.
Part of the book: Rediscovery of Landraces as a Resource for the Future