The effective and reliable management of malaria vectors is still a global challenge. Recently, it has been noted that the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, RTS,S/AS01 showed only transient protection, particularly in infants, and rapid resistance has been developing to artemisinin-based drugs. Therefore, the control of malaria mosquito vectors according to strategies of integrated vector management (IVM) is receiving emphasis. A rather wide number of novel mosquito control tools have been tested, including attractive toxic sugar baits, eave tubes, nano-synthesized pesticides loaded with microbial- and plant-borne compounds, biocontrol agents with little non-target effects, new adult repellents, oviposition deterrents, and even acoustic larvicides. However, their real-world applications remain limited. Most National Malaria Control Programs in Africa still rely on indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to reduce malaria incidence but generally have insufficient impact on malaria prevalence. Here, we focus on facts, trends, and current challenges in the employment of the above-mentioned vector control tools in the fight against malaria. We emphasize the needs for better vector control tools used in IVM to overcome the challenges posed by outdoor transmission and growing levels of insecticide resistance, which are threatening the efficacy of LLINs and IRS.
Part of the book: Towards Malaria Elimination
Many barriers undermine vector surveillance and control efforts in the United States. Experts warn that such barriers, including funding, threaten the capacity of public-health surveillance systems to detect emerging mosquito-borne disease and respond appropriately, timely and effectively. This chapter explores the status, barriers, and corrective strategies to effective mosquito surveillance and control in the US based on experiences and insights of the 35 interviewed representatives of diverse mosquito-control programs selected from 18 U.S. states. Although our interest is in mosquito-borne diseases, we focus on the 2016 Zika outbreak. For the most part, this chapter will outline issues relating to mosquito control and surveillance that have persistent among state, county and municipal programs as a result of insufficient and unreliable funding, inadequate trained personnel, poor facilities, and inadequate political support. At the community level, we will discuss issues that hinder mosquito control efforts including apathy and low public awareness, and provide examples of how mosquito control agencies have adapted to “readily” respond to changing vector-borne disease environments, demands and constrained funding.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Neglected Tropical Diseases