Termites are social insects reported from many countries of the world. Some species of them are known to be beneficial to man, whereas some others cause substantial losses (billions of US dollars annually) of properties and amenities. Various preventive and remedial methods are used to control undesirable termite species. The current review paper gives an overview of beneficial and detrimental activities of termites. Methods of control of undesirable species of termites are given and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. We emphasized on the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as effective, environmentally safe and sustainable biological control method against termites. Species of EPNs recovered in Africa are documented. Some techniques used to collect termites and to maintain them for experiments and also to propagate, to formulate, to store, and to check for the quality of EPNs for application in the laboratory and in the field are also discussed. The environmental factors affecting the potential of EPNs to control termites are discussed. The information provided in this chapter will help researchers to enhance their skills of the use of EPNs against termites by selecting from the methodologies described here the best ones to adapt to particular experimental conditions, especially in African soil conditions.
Part of the book: Nematology
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with its long life cycle is affected by several diseases of which cassava bacterial blight (CBB) is the major bacterial disease in the cassava belt worldwide. The epidemiological and ecological investigations undertaken on the disease showed that the causal agent, the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), possesses several means for survival and dissemination that may play an important role as inoculum sources for the infection when favorable conditions occur, and the subsequent damage of the plant causing severe yield losses. In fact, Xam survives epiphytically on some weeds occurring in and around cassava fields without developing blight symptoms. Investigating the survival period over the seasons, a longer survival exceeding 5 months has been observed in non-decayed cassava debris. Also, some insects in cassava field like the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus) vehicles the pathogen for some time. Over seasons Xam also survives often latently, in cassava stems which are then used for establishing new plantations. In regional disease surveys across ecozones in West Africa, no zone of preference has been found. Though, comparing the development of the disease and the damages caused in yield loss trials in two agro-eco-zones over 2 years, CBB was more pronounced and caused higher yield and biomass losses in the forest savannah transition zone than in the dry savannah where symptom development was positively correlated with the rainfall patterns. The detailed knowledge of the epidemiology, disease development, survival and dissemination, of the reaction of cassava varieties towards CBB such as physiological resistance mechanisms, identification of genetic resistance (QTL) and the background of observed field resistance as well as of the influence of planting time and cropping pattern allows to recommend integrated management measures such as sanitation, intercropping, removal of diseased leaves, management of planting dates according to ecozone, soil amendments, use of resistant genotypes.
Part of the book: Cassava