Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are commonly diagnosed malignancy in both men and women. Although it is a common disease, mortality rates decrease with widespread use of screening methods and novel developments in surgery. Physical examination, abdomen and pelvic computerized tomography, and chest imaging are necessary for preoperative staging and surgical planning of a newly diagnosed colon cancer. CRCs usually develop from adenomatous polyps. Although curative treatment of localized colon cancer is surgery, endoscopic polypectomy is sufficient when severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ is detected on a polyp surface. Total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectum cancers resulted in significant reductions in morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates. Recently, complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation method has been described in the surgical treatment of colon cancer to achieve similar results. Unfortunately, metastatic colon cancer rate at presentation is approximately 20%. Surgery is a potentially curative option in selected patients with liver and lung metastasis. Pathologic stage of the tumor at presentation is the most important prognostic factor after resection. Therefore, early diagnosis of colon cancer by screening methods and new surgical techniques will lead to better results in survival rates.
Part of the book: Current Trends in Cancer Management