Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the important tool to analyze physics of fluids. Hypersonic flows over real space configurations represent a substantial problem from the point of view of the development of new and more effective mathematical models, numerical methods, and the use of computer systems. Governing equations for multi-component, multi-temperature, chemically reacting non-equilibrium radiant mixtures are the mathematical foundation for the study of vehicles entering in Martian atmosphere. Based on the kinetic equations for the distribution functions, an efficient three-temperature model suitable for Mars re-entry applications derived and used for the simulations of a non-equilibrium flow in a viscous shock layer near a space vehicle. The closed self-consistent description of a flow in terms of densities of species, macroscopic velocity, gas temperature, and three vibration temperatures are proposed. The transport properties in dissociating CO2 flows have been evaluated. The proposed model takes into account real structure of polyatomic CO2 molecules, non-equilibrium CO2 vibration excitation, different rates of various energy transitions, and chemical reactions. Numerical investigations of a flow past a frontal part of Mars Sample Return Orbiter (MSRO) and MARS EXPRESS vehicles descending in an atmosphere of Mars are presented. The radiation processes taking into account of non-equilibrium character are considered.
Part of the book: Advances in Some Hypersonic Vehicles Technologies