Composition of gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota differs in individual parts of GIT. Only 40% of GIT bacteria are cultivable. Fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH) can detect non-cultivable bacteria. Perorally administered antibiotics (ATB) affect the composition of microbiota in GIT. The absorbed ATB, namely penicillins, tetracyclines, macrolides or fluorochinolons, have different influence in comparison with poorly absorbed oral ATB, such as aminoglycosides, aminocoumarines or polypeptides. This effect is due to retention of high concentration of non-absorbed ATB during passage through GIT and their longer influence on bacteria living in different parts of GIT. Study methods were based on scientific literature review from PubMed, Elsevier databases and Slovak scientific publications. We searched for publications between years 1980 and 2016, with keywords: ATB, influence, microbiota, FISH. The literature review focuses on peroral administration of ATB to humans and animals and its potential effect on composition of GIT microbiota. The relevant studies showed that per orally administered ATB produced many important changes in microbiota of GIT. FISH method was more frequently used for screening the normal composition of microbiota than for studying the effects of ATB although there were some studies dealing also with this issue.
Part of the book: Antibiotic Use in Animals