Signals vary in type and function. However, regardless of the signal, effective transmission and receiver detection are needed to exist for communication. This chapter focuses on a review of visual color signals used by plants to attract pollinators. Signal detection work has intensely focused on epigamic signals; therefore, this review adds to the body of knowledge on nonsexual signal communication. In this review, we investigate visual signals as it relates to pollinators. We focus specifically on visual color signals used by Angiosperms flowers, both static and dynamic, and look at their Heliconiid pollinators as these butterflies provide a perfect organism for studies on floral signal use and pollinators’ behavior. We noted that many of these butterflies have three specifically distinct rhodopsins used to identify food and oviposition sites and some have more due to selective pressures of conspecific and mate identification as such they have served as the focal organisms of numerous genetic and ecological studies as they use color signaling in all aspects of their lives. This review further shows that although their color preferences related to feeding, ovipositing, and mate selection have been demonstrated in countless studies, there are gaps in invertebrate literature, as research on the relationships among signal use, evolution, dynamic signals, effects of signals changes on decision making and thus behavior have not been carried out to a large extent.
Part of the book: Arthropods