Both educators and employers agree there is a growing gap between competences that labor market expects from its new employees and skills they own. Literature review holds that a set of nontechnical, professional abilities and intra- and interpersonal attitudes are required to close this gap and indicates that more training of soft skills is needed to access employment and success in work life. Although these skills are theoretically included in educational stages, project management approach can be incorporated to improve students and new employees’ practical curricula. The methodology consists of the critical review of the competency frameworks established by the DeSeCo and Tuning projects, confronting them against the requirements currently demanded by labor market, based on the reports of Deloitte, PwC, EY, and KPMG, to detect inconsistencies between educational and professional stages and check if project management standards, by PMI and IPMA, cover them. Compiling these weaknesses, actions can be established aimed at solving them, based on project management proposals. The incorporation of project management concepts into educational stages, especially the vision by competences, contributes to improve the employability by highlighting those transverse but essential skills that lead to versatile and successful professionals. To achieve this, it is necessary to care for human competences.
Part of the book: Human Capital and Competences in Project Management
The new paradigms of Industry 4.0 force all the industrial sectors to face a deep digital transformation in order to be on the edge in a competitive and globalized scenario. Following this trend, the shipbuilding industry has to establish its own path to adapt itself to the digital era. This chapter aims to explore this challenge and give an outlook on the multiple transformative technologies that are involved. For that reason, a case of study is presented as a starting point, in which the digital technologies that can be applied are easily recognized. A social network analysis (SNA) is developed among these key enabling technologies (KETs), in order to stress their correlations and links. As a result, artificial intelligence (AI) can be highlighted as a support to the other technologies, such as vertical integration of naval production systems (e.g., connectivity, Internet of things, collaborative robotics, etc.), horizontal integration of value networks (e.g., cybersecurity, diversification, etc.), and life cycle reengineering (e.g., drones, 3D printing (3DP), virtual and augmented reality, remote sensing networks, robotics, etc.).
Part of the book: New Trends in the Use of Artificial Intelligence for the Industry 4.0