The global expansion of Chagas disease is due to the constant migration of individuals from endemic countries with incidence of vector and nonvector transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease is present in its various stages: chronological characteristic signs and symptoms of the infection and its mechanism of immune system and cell and tissue damage. The first stage, which lasts 90 days approximately, is diagnosed by direct methods (blood smears stained with Giemsa, fresh and xenodiagnosis). The indeterminate-chronic stage is asymptomatic, but the growth and intracellular binary multiplication of the trypomastigotes continue promoting cell lysis and allowing parasites to infect other cells, with preferential tropism to organs producing mega syndromes such as cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, meningoencephalitis, megaesophagus and megacolon. Inadvertently, this process is repeated for several years leading to Chagas disease. The mouse inoculation allows checking the parasitemia in vivo and the development of the disease in short time (signs, behavior and tropism), histopathological alterations and detection of antibodies in serum. These parameters may vary when using different strains of T. cruzi from different geographical areas; Triatoma species due to their genetic variability are influenced by the environment, nutrition, reservoirs and habitat. The murine model ECA CD-1 has the ability to replicate human findings of Chagas disease.
Part of the book: Chagas Disease
Infection in humans by the intestinal protozoan of cockroaches and termites called Lophomonas blattarum has been diagnosed in respiratory infections of children aged 2–5 years contaminated orally or by air, with cysts or trophozoites contained in the feces of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. In respiratory infections of adults, it is difficult to diagnose since the cyst or trophozoite is not recognized as a human pathogen and is only related to immunosuppressed patients, transplant patients with severe lung disease and those living in poor and unhealthy sanitary conditions. Normally, its presence is manifested with fevers of 38–39°C, cough with thick expectoration, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary abscesses. The laboratory diagnosis is mainly based on bronchoscopic cytologies and bronchoalveolar lavage biopsies. The case in question is about a 60-year-old male. Single, he lives alone, with a diagnosis of 9 baths behind non-Hodgkin lymphoma, undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. For edema after treatment, thoracentesis and pericardiocentesis were performed, as well as gastrostomy, which he maintained for 1 year. He started with throat discomfort, followed by production of productive cough without blood, general weakness, and difficulty breathing, with apparent diagnosis of possible respiratory failure due to mycobacteria. It was possible to visualize the protozoan, in fresh preparations of bronchial aspirate and expectoration in wet assembly with saline solution and stained with Pap smears, Harris Hematoxylin and Eosin (H/E), and Giemsa.
Part of the book: Parasitology and Microbiology Research