The chapter is devoted to the development of methods for remote measurement of spatial spectra of waves arising on marine and ocean surface. It is shown that in most natural conditions of optical image formation, a nonlinear modulation of the brightness field occurs by slopes of water surface elements. Methods for reconstructing the spectra of surface waves from optical image spectra with allowance for such modulation are proposed. The methods are based on the numerical simulation of water surface taking into account wave formation conditions and conditions of light entering the sea surface from the upper and lower hemispheres. Using the results of numerical simulation, special operators are built to retrieve wave spectra from the spectra of aerospace images. These retrieving operators are presented in the form of analytical expressions, depending on the sets of parameters, which are determined by the conditions for the formation of images. The results of experimental studies of the sea wave spectra in various water areas using satellite optical images of high spatial resolution are presented. In the experimental studies, the spatial spectral characteristics of sea waves estimated from remote sensing data were compared with the corresponding characteristics measured by contact assets under controlled conditions.
Part of the book: Surface Waves