Passive vibration control solutions like tuned vibration absorbers are often limited to tackle a single structural resonance or a specific disturbance frequency. Active vibration control systems can overcome these limitations, yet requiring continuously electrical energy for a sufficient performance. Thus, in some cases, a passive vibration control system is still preferable. Yet, the integration of active elements enables adaptation of the system parameters, for instance, the resonance of a tuned vibration absorber. These adaptive or semi-active systems only require external energy for the adaptation, while the compensating forces are generated by the inertia of the absorber’s mass. In this contribution, the fundamentals of active, passive, and adaptive vibration control are briefly summarized and compared regarding their main advantages and design challenges. In the second part, a design of an inertial mass device with integrated piezoelectric actuators is presented. By applying a lever mechanism, the stiffness of the inertial mass device can be tuned even to very low frequencies. The device can be used to implement both adaptive tuned vibration absorbers and active control systems. In the last section of the chapter, the device is used in an experiment for vibration control of a large elastic structure. The setup is used to demonstrate different strategies for the realization of a vibration control system and the integration of different vibration control strategies.