The third-generation ionic liquids (ILs), which are being used to produce double active pharmaceutical ingredients (d-APIs) with tunable biological activity along with novel performance, enhancement, and delivery options, have been revolutionizing the area of drug discovery since the past few decades. Herein we report the in vitro antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of benzalkonium ibuprofenate (BaIb) that are being used as in-house d-API, with a particular focus on its interaction with respective protein target through molecular docking study. The evaluation of the biological activity of BaIb with the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory target at the molecular level revealed that the synthesized BaIb could be designed as a potential double active drug since it retains the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of its parent drugs, benzalkonium chloride (BaCl) and sodium ibuprofenate (NaIb), respectively.
Part of the book: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Density functional theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanical approach used to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases. In this work, we have used DFT/B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory to get insight into the molecular geometry and thermochemical properties of histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Histamine H2-receptor antagonists or H2 blockers are a group of pharmaceutical ingredients that reduce the amount of acid produced by the cells in the lining of the stomach. The potential H2 blockers include cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, and ranitidine. The detailed theoretical investigation on the listed H2 blockers in terms of their thermochemical parameters and global descriptive parameters revealed that, though famotidine is the best among them with highest Gibbs free energy, nizatidine showed higher biological activity with high softness, low hardness, and high electrophilicity index. The theoretical vibrational spectra of these four Histamine H2-receptor antagonists were analyzed and the infrared spectra of nizatidine was compared with the experimental IR spectra, and found to be good agreement with the experimental values. Further, frontier molecular orbitals especially the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were determined and the activation energy of the selected samples were calculated. In addition to this, the amorphisation technique were employed to enhance the solubility and bio availability of the best biologically active H2 blocker nizatidine using broadband dielectric spectroscopy.
Part of the book: Drug Design