Fermentation process of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been investigated by many researchers for higher product quality and yield with lower cost. Operating parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, temperature, substrate type and concentration, agitation speed, air flow rate should be optimized to achieve valuable products. In this point, system identification and advanced control techniques emerge to provide solutions. Dynamic analysis of pH and DO of the growth medium were performed at aerobic conditions in a batch bioreactor by applying step and square wave inputs to the base and air flow rates, respectively. Input–output data of the process and linear Auto Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous (ARMAX)-type model were used to determine the relationship between controlled and manipulated variable in baker’s yeast production by system identification. The model parameters were estimated using the recursive least squares (RLS) method. The most suitable parametric model was determined by carrying out estimations with different values of initial value of the covariance matrix, forgetting factor, and order of the ARMAX model. Self-tuning generalized minimum variance (ST-GMV) control was performed with the ARMAX model for controlling pH and DO. Integrated square error (ISE) values were considered as a performance criteria for modeling and control studies.
Part of the book: Yeast
In recent years, it is aimed to reuse wastewater to form an economical input and to manage it sustainably without threatening human life and ecosystem. High pollutant removal yield from wastewaters was achieved using electrocoagulation method without adding any chemical coagulant or flocculants, thus reducing the amount of sludge. However, electrocoagulation (EC) is an inefficient method for the removal of stable and dissolved organic pollutants. Electrooxidation (EOx), which was evaluated as one of the most promising technologies for the treatment of wastewater containing soluble organic compounds, can directly and indirectly oxidize small organic pollutants. Although electrooxidation provides full mineralization of the organic matter, if suspended solids are present, energy consumption is increased. Since EC is a fast but incomplete process and EOx is a complete but slow process, combining the two processes offers a practical hybrid. In this chapter, mechanisms and applications of EC, EOx, and their combinations will be widely discussed.
Part of the book: Wastewater and Water Quality