There are two main types of haemophilia, classified according to deficiency: type A, caused by factor VIII deficiency; and type B, which is rarer and the result of a deficiency in factor IX. Haemarthroses account for 80% of bleeding in haemophilic patients, with half of these exhibiting deformities. Repeated joint effusion leads to a local inflammatory response, with the formation of hyperplasic and hypertrophic cells and subsequent buildup of haemosiderin. Fibroblasts proliferate and produce collagenases and proteinases that act on the synovium, cartilage and bone, with a decrease in the joint space. Another mechanism involved is the damage caused by direct action of red blood cells on the cartilaginous surface of the joint lining. 153-samarium was obtained in research reactor by neutron irradiation of 152Sm2O3 (99.4%) in the nitrate form, 152Sm(n,p)153Sm, for 30–36 h. The labelling process was performed with 40 mg of hydroxyapatite, according to Barboza et al. Radiochemical purity, particle size, microbiological tests for sterility and pyrogen were the tests applied to obtain an useful material. The introduction of 153Sm-HA for the treatment of haemophilic arthropathy in large and medium joints was a safe, cost-effective, minimally invasive and effective procedure in controlling bleeding and pain.
Part of the book: Hydroxyapatite