Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of TBI is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. At the moment of the traumatic impact, transfer of kinetic forces causes neurologic damage; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades, together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. These areas of ongoing secondary injury, or areas of “traumatic penumbra,” represent crucial targets for therapeutic interventions. This chapter is focused on the interplay between progression of parenchymal injury and the neuroprotective and neurorestorative processes that are emerging and developing subsequently to traumatic impact. Thus, we emphasized the role of traumatic penumbra in TBI pathogenesis and suggested a crucial contribution of the neurovascular units (NVUs) and paracrine effects of exosomes and miRNAs in promoting neurological recovery.
Part of the book: Traumatic Brain Injury