This book chapter brings to attention the dramatic impact of large earthquake disasters on local communities and society and highlights the necessity of building and enhancing the earthquake culture. Iran was considered as a research case study and fifteen large earthquake disasters in Iran were investigated and analyzed over more than a century-time period. It was found that the earthquake culture in Iran was and is still conditioned by many factors or parameters which are not integrated and do not work harmoniously towards building and sustaining an earthquake culture in Iran. A historical possibility of an earthquake culture in Iran was mainly severed by culture, especially beliefs, strong geopolitics in Iran and in Middle East, a complex and dynamic political landscape in Iran, foreign invasions and wars. However, there is a great potential in Iran for the earthquake culture to be built and developed. The earthquake culture is recommended to be integrated within earthquake disaster risk assessment and earthquake disasters risk management studies which are performed and carried out in Iran and other countries at seismic risk. The contribution of this book chapter is towards the earthquake disasters studies and policies for the countries at earthquake risk.
Part of the book: Risk Assessment
This book chapter targets how learning from large earthquakes disasters occurred and developed in Japan and Iran in the last 100 years. As research case studies, large earthquake disasters in Japan and Iran were investigated and analyzed. Normal distribution was found to be a good estimate of the magnitude distribution for earthquakes, in both the countries. In Japan, there is almost a linear correlation between magnitude of earthquakes and number of dead people. However, such correlation is not present for Iran. This lack of correlation in Iran and existence of linear correlation in Japan highlights that the magnitude of earthquakes directly affects the number of fatalities and extent of destruction in Japan, while in Iran, there is an increased complexity with regard to the factors affecting earthquake consequences. A correlation is suggested between earthquake culture and learning from large earthquake disasters in both Japan and Iran. Learning from large earthquake disasters is impacted by a multitude of factors, but the rhythm of learning in Japan is much higher if compared with Iran. For both Japan and Iran, a reactive learning approach based on past earthquake disasters needs to be constantly backed up by a proactive approach and dynamic learning.
Part of the book: Earthquakes