The commonest saying goes as “cancer has no answer,” we have really come a long way in that aspect. From being able to detect and diagnose the disease early, effective treatment modalities, improvement in therapeutic outcome and even effective palliative measures. The research focus emphasized upon detecting preventable risk factors. Tobacco a Global culprit is often discussed as the most important risk factor for cancer. Modern day life and with its so-called stress measures are the ones often been blamed without a concrete scientific evidences. Psychological makeup of a person, emotional stress and cellular phones are intricately associated with a modern lifestyle. In this chapter we would be focusing upon the causal relationship between these factors and malignancy with available scientific literature. At the end we would present possible measures to avoid them and any future research areas to be looked upon.
Part of the book: Cancer Causing Substances
With the advent of highly conformal and adaptive radiotherapy techniques, the significance of accurate delineation of organs at risk (OARs) is becoming more and more important. Techniques such as Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and intensity/volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has allowed for improved dose conformation within the target. It has also allowed for steep dose gradients around the target for better normal tissue sparing. The accurate contouring and delineation of the OARs are thus warranted as variation in delineation has been systematically reported in studies. All these facts have led to the development of contouring guidelines for OARs in various sites. Head and neck cancers (HNC) are a perfect example where outcome and quality of life (QOL) balance remains a therapeutic challenge. There are several OARs and thus the accurate delineation following a standard guideline becomes more important. This chapter looks into the published guidelines for the delineation of such structures.
Part of the book: Cancer Survivorship